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大脑能记住你以为你已经忘了的语言

2017-04-26 11:40:54 编辑 删除

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Brain RemembersLanguages You Think You Forgot

大脑能记住你认为你已经忘了的语言

井中蛙按:这是加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚大学文学院网站上一篇小文章。文章讨论的是婴幼儿语言学习效应问题。现翻译如下,恳请高人指点。

New evidence suggests that the earliesttraces of a language can stay with us into adulthood, even if we no longerspeak or understand the language itself. And early exposure also seems to speedthe process of relearning it later in life.

最新研究表明,我们在婴幼儿时期由于聆听某种语言而在大脑里留下的关于该种语言的印象一直可以保留到成年时期,即使我们现在不会说也不理解这种语言。这种印象可以帮助我们很快地重新学习这种语言。

In the new study, recently published in Royal Society Open Science,Dutch adults were trained to listen for sound contrasts in Korean. Someparticipants reported no prior exposure to the language; others were born in Korea andadopted by Dutch families before the age of six. All participants said theycould not speak Korean, but the adoptees from Korea were better at distinguishingbetween the contrasts and more accurate in pronouncing Korean sounds.

最新出版的英国皇家学会开放获取科学杂志刊登了这一研究报告。该项研究组织了一些荷兰成年人辨别韩语中的语音差异。这些参加试验的荷兰人,有的是在韩国出生后不久即被荷兰家庭收养成为荷兰人的,有的从未在韩语环境中生活过。所有的参加者都不会说韩语。实验表明。那些被收养的荷兰人在辨别韩语语音上能力更强,发韩语语音也更准确。

“Language learning can be retainedsubconsciously, even if conscious memories of the language do not exist,” saysJiyoun Choi, postdoctoral fellow at HanyangUniversity in Seoul and lead author of the study. And itappears that just a brief period of early exposure benefits learning effortslater; when Choi and her collaborators compared the results of people adoptedbefore they were six months old with results of others adopted after 17 months,there were no differences in their hearing or speaking abilities.

“即使我们大脑再也不记得某种语言,我们习得这种语言的结果仍然可以被潜意识所保留。” 韩国汉阳大学博士后研究人员晁继勇是这项研究的组织者。他说,暴露在某种语言环境中哪怕是很短的时间也会对以后重新学习该语言有所帮助。晁继勇和他的团队比较了出生后六个月之内就被荷兰人收养的韩国儿童和出生十七个月后被荷兰人收养的韩国儿童,发现他们的韩语听说能力并无差别。

“It's exciting that these effects are seeneven among adults who were exposed to Korean only up to six months of age—anage before which babbling emerges,” says Janet Werker, a professor ofpsychology at the University of British Columbia, whowas not involved with the research. Remarkably, what we learn before we caneven speak stays with us for decades.

不列颠哥伦比亚大学教授吉奈特维克说,我们很高兴的发现,这种学习语言的效应在出生仅仅六个月的儿童中同样存在。而出生仅仅六个月的儿童连咿呀学语的能力都还不具备。很显然,我们在会说话之前学到的东西会伴随我们数十年。


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